4 Penance: Panel on the Seven Sacrament font, Great Glemham church, Suffolk. Pollard, ed., Property and Politics: Essays in Later Medieval English History (Gloucester, 1984), pp.
WOMEN IN E N G L A N D IN THE MIDDLE AGES This page intentionally left blank Women in England in the Middle Ages Jennifer Ward hambledon continuum Hambledon Continuum A Continuum imprint The Tower Building 11 York Road London, SE1 7NX 80 Maiden Lane Suite 704 New York, NY 10038 First Published 2006 ISBN 1 85285 346 8 Copyright © Jennifer Ward 2006 The moral rights of the author have been asserted. Without limiting the rights under copyrights reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of the book. French, 'Maidens' Lights and Wives' Stores: Women's Parish Guilds in Late Medieval England', Sixteenth Century Journal, 29 (1998), pp.
A description of this book is available from the British Library and from the Library of Congress.
8 The Birth of Jesus: Alabaster panel from Long Melford church, Suffolk. Erler, 'English Vowed Women at the End of the Middle Ages', Mediaeval Studies, 57 (1995), pp.
9 Work and Religious Practice: Carving from Swaffham church, Norfolk. Elkins, Holy Women of Twelfth-Century England (Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 1988).
12 John and Katherine Goodale: painting at Burnham Norton church, Norfolk. 2 The Widow: Brass of Christina Bray at Felsted church, Essex. This results from work done by archaeologists on settlements, churches and houses, and from studies of medieval literature, as well as from research into historical documents. Duggan, ed., Queens and Queenship in Medieval Europe (Woodbridge, 1997). Dunn, 'Margaret of Anjou, Queen Consort of Henry VI: A Reassessment of her Role, 1445-1453', in R. Archer, ed., Crown, Government and People in the Fifteenth Century (Stroud, 1995), pp.
VIII WOMEN IN E N G L A N D IN THE MIDDLE AGES Text Figures 1 Infant Mortality: Brass of Thomas Grevile at Stanford Rivers church, Essex. Although the middle ages seem distant from the present day, enough evidence survives to show that medieval women did not always conform to the models laid down by the church or crown. Duggan, ed., Nobles and Nobility in Medieval Europe (Woodbridge, 2000). The majority of people lived on the land, where husband and wife divided the responsibilities for the farm, household and children. Cullum, 'Vowesses and Female Lay Piety in the Province of York, 1300-1530', Northern History, 32 (1996), pp. The growth of marketing and industry provided opportunities for women to use their skills to earn extra cash for the family through brewing, working on textiles and marketing surplus produce. Cullum, Cremetts and Corrodies: Care of the Poor and Sick at St Leonard's Hospital, York, in the Middle Ages, Borthwick Paper, 79 (York, 1991). We can find as many varieties of women in the middle ages as we see around us in the modern world. Women appeared outwardly submissive and obedient but were capable of making their wishes felt, whether in peasant protest or as noblewomen making their views known to the king. I would like to thank Lindy Grant, Tony Morris, Nigel Saul, Martin Sheppard and Anne Sutton for their help with the book; and Martin Stuchfield and the Conway Library, Courtauld Institute of Art, London, for permission to reproduce illustrations. I would also like to thank family and friends for their readiness to discuss questions relating to medieval women and to visit the churches and sites associated with them. De Aragon, Tn Pursuit of Aristocratic Women: A Key to Success in Norman England', Albion, 14 (1982), pp. Thereafter they are transformed and invested with new meanings that reflect and assert who we are.