In various periods there were immigrants from Nubia, Libya, and especially the Middle East.
They were historically significant and also may have contributed to population growth, but their numbers are unknown.
Most people lived in villages and towns in the Nile valley and delta.Dwellings were normally built of mud brick and have long since disappeared beneath the rising water table or beneath modern town sites, thereby obliterating evidence for settlement patterns.Sheep were primarily a source of meat; their wool was rarely used. Desert game, principally various species of antelope and ibex, were hunted by the elite; it was a royal privilege to hunt lions and wild cattle.Pets included dogs, which were also used for hunting, cats, and monkeys.As the river deposited alluvial silt, raising the level of the floodplain, and land was reclaimed from marsh, the area available for cultivation in the Nile valley and delta increased, while pastoralism declined slowly.
In addition to grain crops, fruit and vegetables were important, the latter being irrigated year-round in small plots. Papyrus, which grew abundantly in marshes, was gathered wild and in later times was cultivated.The schematic character of this tradition does not impair the historicity of a…wealth came from the fertile floodplain of the Nile valley, where the river flows between bands of limestone hills, and the Nile delta, in which it fans into several branches north of present-day Cairo.In addition, the Egyptians had a great interest in, and knowledge of, most species of mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish in their environment.Most Egyptians were probably descended from settlers who moved to the Nile valley in prehistoric times, with population increase coming through natural fertility.It may have been used as a food crop, and it certainly was used to make rope, matting, and sandals.