Foxes, hares, hedgehogs, rabbits, weasels, stoats, badgers, shrews, rats and mice are common, otters are found in many rivers, and seals appear along the coast.
The United Kingdom has an extensive system of canals, mostly built in the early years of the Industrial Revolution, before railways were built.
There are numerous dams and water reservoirs to store water for drinking and industry.
Heather, grasses, gorse, and bracken are found on the moorlands.
Wolves, bears, boars, and reindeer are extinct, but red and roe deer are protected for sport.
Northern Ireland, making up the north-eastern part of Ireland, is mostly hilly.
The climate is generally temperate, though significantly warmer than some other locations at similar latitude, such as central Poland, due to the warming influence of the Gulf Stream. The prevailing winds are south-westerly, from the North Atlantic Current. There can be strong winds and floods, especially in winter.
The greatest distance between two points on the UK mainland of Great Britain is 840 miles (1,350 km) between Land's End in Cornwall (near Penzance) and John O'Groats in Caithness (near Thurso), a two day journey by car.
When measured directly north-south it is a little over 700 miles (1,100 km) in length and is a fraction under 300 miles (500 km) at its widest.
Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanized, and efficient by European standards, producing about 60 percent of food needs with only one percent of the labor force. Around two thirds of production is devoted to livestock, and one third to arable crops.
The UK has large reserves of coal, natural gas, and oil, as well as limestone, chalk, gypsum, silica, rock salt, china clay, iron ore, tin, silver, gold and lead. The United Kingdom is reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
The History of the formation of the United Kingdom is quite complicated.