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Home 20th Century Dinosaurs Dinosaurs in Literature, Art & History Eyewitness Accounts There Were Giants In The Earth in Those Days Those Sophisticated "Cave Men" Search for Noah's Ark DNA, The Ultimate Oopart The Bone Yards Underwater Cities, Monuments? Adams and his colleagues have looked at is true, other bits could be true as well. Because, if the little bit of the Old Testament's narrative that Prof.

The Old Testament and the Ancient Near East Petra by Don Jaques The ancient city of Petra is located about halfway between the southern end of the Dead Sea and the northern tip of the Gulf of Aqabah.

The city was first established sometime around the 6th century B. by a nomadic tribe who settled in the area and laid the foundations of a commercial empire that extended into Syria.

This team reported in Science magazine in 2003 that radiocarbon dating of olive pits and charred grain from the site dates between 940 B. That would undercut the Bible on David and Solomon and support "minimalist" skeptics.

Apparently, science cannot conclusively settle this dispute.

Edom was a rugged land south and east of the Dead Sea in present-day southern Jordan. (Dever remains dubious about the biblical history of the earlier Exodus, dismissing conservatives who cite the towns on Moses' route named in Egyptian records.) The Edom dig is described in Antiquity, a British archaeological quarterly, by Russell Adams of Canada's Mc Master University; Thomas Levy of the University of California, San Diego, and colleagues in Britain, Israel, Germany and Jordan. An impressive fortress site, 80 yards square, dates to the 10th-century era of David and Solomon.

The Bible reports that Edom had kings before Israel (Genesis , 1 Chronicles ) and that they barred Moses' throng after the Exodus (Numbers -21) and later warred with David (2 Samuel -14, 1 Kings -16). They report that pottery and radiocarbon dating of organic materials from a major copper mill in Jordan show settlement in the 11th century B. This doesn't explicitly support the Bible's references to Edom, Adams says, but does prove that the Edomites thrived in the 10th century, and that lends credibility to the biblical chronology.Dever has examined pottery from the site and is convinced that some is Israelite, indicating David's kingdom engaged in international trading. That fits snugly with Solomon's biblical kingdom and the Pharaoh Shishak's invasion five years after Solomon died (1 Kings -6).In addition, Adams says, early settlement in Edom corroborates archaeological work at the major Tel Rehov site in northern Israel by Amihai Mazar of Hebrew University and others. Most senior archaeologists' dating relates various remains with Solomon's kingdom, but they have recently been challenged by Finkelstein's "low chronology," which seeks to shift dates downward by as much as a century.The finding adds to evidence that Neanderthals were capable of symbolic thought and perhaps language.Scientists use a technique called radiometric dating to estimate the ages of rocks, fossils, and the earth.Those scholars known as minimalists argue that what is known as "state formation" -- the emergence of regional governments and kings -- did not take place in the area until the imperialistic expansion of the Assyrian empire in the 8th century BC, so David and Solomon, rather than being mighty monarchs, were mere petty chieftains.