This was not a problem because they all had a strong affinity with the polis; their own destiny and the destiny of the community were strongly linked.
In Athens, citizens were both ruler and ruled, important political and judicial offices were rotated and all citizens had the right to speak and vote in the political assembly.In the Roman Empire, citizenship expanded from small-scale communities to the entire empire.During this era, members of the nobility had a range of privileges above commoners (see aristocracy), though political upheavals and reforms, beginning most prominently with the French Revolution, abolished privileges and created an egalitarian concept of citizenship.The modern idea of citizenship still respects the idea of political participation, but it is usually done through "elaborate systems of political representation at a distance" such as representative democracy.When the Greeks fought together, they fought in order to avoid being enslaved by warfare, to avoid being defeated by those who might take them into slavery.
And they also arranged their political institutions so as to remain free men.
Portrait of Dred Scott, plaintiff in the infamous Dred Scott v. Native Americans were not granted full US citizenship until the passage of the Indian Citizenship Act in 1924.
Sandford case at the Supreme Court of the United States, commissioned by a "group of Negro citizens" and presented to the Missouri Historical Society, St. Bhagat Singh Thind (1923), would later clarify the meaning of the phrase "free white persons," ruling that ethnically Japanese, Indian, and other non-European people were not "white persons", and were therefore ineligible for naturalization under U. However, even well into the 1960s some state laws prevented Native Americans from exercising their full rights as citizens, such as the right to vote.
Louis, in 1888 The Naturalization Act of 1790, the first law in U. history to establish rules for citizenship and naturalization, barred citizenship to all people who were not of European descent, stating that "any Alien being a free white person, who shall have resided within the limits and under the jurisdiction of the United States for the term of two years, may be admitted to become a citizen thereof." Under early U. laws, African Americans were not eligible for citizenship. In 1962, New Mexico became the last state to enfranchise Native Americans.
In 1857, these laws were upheld in the US Supreme Court case Dred Scott v. Constitution, ratified on July 9, 1868, stated that "all persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside." Despite the gains made by African Americans after the Civil War, Native Americans, Asians, and others not considered "free white persons" were still denied the ability to become citizens. It was not until the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 that the racial and gender restrictions for naturalization were explicitly abolished.
From the viewpoint of the ancient Greeks, a person's public life was not separated from their private life, and Greeks did not distinguish between the two worlds according to the modern western conception.