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Study findings: Strong moderate/strong relationships between measures of WTC and outcome variables Great News! Cross-sectional study – a type of observational study that involves the analysis of data collected from a population, or a representative subset, at one specific point in time.While the cross-sectional and intervention studies that addressed health and wellbeing outcomes showed no evidence for effects of WTC on health/well-being the interventional studies DID show significant effects on individual indicators of health/well-being. Well-being represents a broader construct that includes elements that go beyond physical, mental and even emotional health and include elements of social and even financial health.

Lastly, flextime was shown to have a moderately strong relationship to all three outcome variables: work–non-work balance, health/well-being, and job-related outcomes.High-level summary of the notable findings of the review are summarized below: Figure 2. Systematic review on the association between employee worktime control and work-non-work balance, health and well-being, and job-related outcomes. Glossary: Work-Time Control (WTC) – an employee’s perception of possibilities of control over the duration, position, and distribution of worktime.While not causal, the results definitely emphasize the role that organizational interventions can have on the overall health and wellbeing of employees. Additionally, findings show that providing employees the ability to influence the length of their work day, by defining their own start and end times, was related to higher levels of job-related outcomes, health and wellbeing and work-life balance. This approach, called the standardized index of convergence (SIC) essentially represents the degree of consistency that may or may not exist with regard to the association of WTC and a specific outcome category across all 63 of the papers.

The SIC values ranged from -1 to 1, with a -1 representing that all studies showed a negative association, and a 1 meaning all studies showed a positive association. The researchers found (see Figure 2) that there was moderately strong evidence that increased Global WTC results in improved work–non-work balance and job-related outcomes, in particular job satisfaction.

In very general terms, well-being provides a more holistic approach to the employee/life experience, whereas wellness most commonly focuses on physical and in some cases, mental health.

Additionally, health and wellness in many organizations tends to be heavily focused around avoidance programs to keep employees from becoming physically ill and that is where it tends to end.

This makes sense given the growing demands that are being placed on workers and their desire to find more balance in their lives.

By letting employees choose when their work day starts and ends they are able to work when they do their best work knowing that they can address their personal needs on their own schedule as well.

These programs are also usually focused on reducing costs for the employer through achieving some sort of ROI on the programs, utilize a carrot-and-stick approach with employees and are pretty myopic in their scope.